Pentingnya Organisme Tanah

Beberapa fungsi penting dari organism tanah (biota) adalah:

Fungsi-fungsi
Organisme yang terlibat
Memelihara struktur tanah
Bioturbating invertebrates and plant roots; mycorrhizae and some other micro-organisms
Regulasi proses hidrologis
Most bioturbating invertebrates and plant roots
Pertukaran gas dan sequestration karbon (akumulasi dalam tanah)
Mostly micro-organisms and plant roots; some C protected in large compact biogenic invertebrate aggregates
Detoksifikasi tanah
Mostly micro-organisms
Siklus  unsure hara
Mostly micro-organisms and plant roots; some soil- and litter-feeding invertebrates
Dekomposisi bahan organic
Various saprophytic and litter-feeding invertebrates (detritivores); fungi; bacteria; actinomycetes and other micro-organisms
Mengendalikan gangguan hama-parasit-penyakit
Plants; mycorrhizae and other fungi; nematodes; bacteria and various other micro-organisms; collembolan; earthworms; various predators
Sumber makanan dan obat-obatan
Plant roots; various insects (crickets; beetle larvae; ants; termites); earthworms; vertebrates; micro-organisms and their by-products
Hubungan Symbiotic dan asymbiotic dengan tanaman dan akarnya
Rhizobia; mycorrhizae; actinomycetes; diazotrophic bacteria and various other rhizosphere micro-organisms; ants
Mengontrol pertumbuhan tanaman (positive dan negative)
Direct effects: plant roots; rhizobia; mycorrhizae; actinomycetes; pathogens; phytoparasitic nematodes; rhizophagous insects; plant-growth promoting rhizosphere micro-organisms; biocontrol agents Indirect effects: most soil biota

Mikroba tanah sangat penting bagi pertumbuhan tanaman. Mereka memperbanyak diri dan aktif membantu penyediaan unsure hara bagi tanaman melalui proses simbiosis dengan jalan melepaskan unsur hara yang “terikat” menjadi bentuk yang tersedia bagi akar tanaman. Mikroba tanah ini juga mempunyai peran aktif melindungi tanaman melawan penyakit “soil-borne diseases”.

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